Compression-dependency of soft tissue bioimpedance for in-vivo and in-vitro tissue testing
The present study determines the effect of compression over bioimpedance of healthy soft tissue (in-vitro and in-vivo). Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a promising tissue characterization and tumor detection technique that uses tissue impedance or admittance to characterize tissue and identify tissue properties as well as cell structure. Variation in EIS measurements while applying pressure suggests that compression tends to affect soft tissue bioimpedance. Moreover, the displacements in tissue caused by applied compression may provide useful information about the structure and state of the tissue. Thus combining the changes to the electrical properties of tissue resulted by applied compression, with the changes in tissue displacements caused by applied compression, and consequently measuring the effect that electrical and mechanical properties have on each other, can be useful to identify tissue structure. In this study, multifrequency bioimpedance measurements were performed on in-vitro and in-vivo soft tissue at different pressure levels. Increasing compression on the in-vitro tissue results in an increase in both extracellular resistance and membrane capacitance while it causes a reduction in the intracellular resistance. However, as the compression over the in-vivo samples increases, the intracellular and extracellular resistance increase and the membrane capacitance decreases. The in-vivo measurements on human body are also tested on contra-lateral tissue sites and similar tissue impedance variation trends are observed in the contra-lateral sites of human body. The evidence from these tests suggests the possibility of using this EIS-Pressure combined measurement method to improve tumor detection in soft tissue. Based upon the observations, the authors envision developing an advanced model based upon the Cole model, which is dependent on tissue displacements.
Bioimpedance, soft tissue, compression, in-vivo, invitro, electrical impedance spectroscopy