Textrode-enabled transthoracic electrical bioimpedance measurements - towards wearable applications of impedance cardiography

Juan Carlos Márquez Ruiz, Markus Rempfler, Fernando Seoane, Kaj Lindecrantz


During the last decades the use of Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) in the medical field has been subject of extensive research, especially since it is an affordable, harmless and non-invasive technology.

In some specific applications such as body composition assessment where EBI has proven a good degree of effectiveness and reliability, the use of textile electrodes and measurement garments have shown a good performance and reproducible results.

Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is another modality of EBI that can benefit from the implementation and use of wearable sensors. ICG technique is based on continuous impedance measurements of a longitudinal segment across the thorax taken at a single frequency. The need for specific electrode placement on the thorax and neck can be easily ensured with the use of a garment with embedded textile electrodes, textrodes. The first step towards the implementation of ICG technology into a garment is to find out if ICG measurements with textile sensors give a good enough quality of the signal to allow the estimation of the fundamental ICG parameters.

In this work, the measurement performance of a 2-belt set with incorporated textrodes for thorax and neck was compared against ICG measurements obtained with Ag/AgCl electrodes. The analysis was based on the quality of the fundamental ICG signals (∆Z, dZ/dt and ECG), systolic time intervals and other ICG parameters. The obtained results indicate the feasibility of using textrodes for ICG measurements with consistent measurements and relatively low data dispersion. Thus, enabling the development of measuring garments for ICG measurements.


Bioimpedance, Impedance Cardiography, ICG, textile electrodes, textrodes

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5617/jeb.542